Monday, March 18, 2013

Docetaxel is a chemotherapeutic agent of the taxane family.

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Generic Name: Docetaxel
Brand Name: Taxotere, Docefrez

Docetaxel is a drug that is used primarily for treating breast cancer. Docetaxel works by attacking cancer cells. Every cell in the body contains a supporting structure called the microtubular network. If this "skeleton" is changed or damaged, the cell can't grow or reproduce. Docetaxel makes the "skeleton" in cancer cells unnaturally stiff, so that these cells can no longer grow.

Docetaxel works by inhibiting cell division; it binds to tubulin and prevents the disassembly of microtubules in the cell, which stops the cell cycle and induces cell death (apoptosis).

Docetaxel (as generic or under the trade name Taxotere) is a clinically well-established anti-mitotic chemotherapy medication (that is, it interferes with cell division). It is used mainly for the treatment of breast, ovarian, prostate, and non-small cell lung cancer. Docetaxel has an FDA approved claim for treatment of patients who have locally advanced, or metastatic breast or non small-cell lung cancer who have undergone anthracycline-based chemotherapy and failed to stop cancer progression or relapsed nd a European approval for use in hormone-refractory prostate cancer.

Friday, March 8, 2013

CISPLATIN: Invention of an Anticancer Drug

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Cisplatin is best known anticancer drug. Cisplatin chemotherapy recognised for lengthening of survival for some common types of lung cancer.
Cisplatin represents today one of the most successful drugs in chemotherapy.

Cisplatin is a tiny little drug molecule that contains a platinum ion in the middle of a flat square with two chloride ions and two ammonia molecules making up the corners. Approved for use in humans in 1978, it was the first of a completely new type of anticancer drug and remains an extremely effective and common treatment for conditions such as testicular and ovarian cancer.

When cisplatin gets into the body, its neutral overall charge means that it can cross the cell membrane. Once in a cell it becomes activated by the replacement of one of the chlorides by a water molecule. The chloride falls off because the concentration of chloride within a cell is much less than it is in the bloodstream. The water itself is, in turn, easily displaced by the basic nitrogen atoms on DNA, specifically on a guanine nucleobase. Once bound to DNA the second chloride ion is replaced by a guanine nitrogen atom from an adjacent DNA strand.

Cisplatin Concept Map:

Cisplatin went through several phases of testing before it was approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in the United States.

Cisplatin is administered intravenously as short-term infusion in normal saline for treatment of solid malignancies. It is used to treat various types of cancers, including sarcomas, some carcinomas (e.g. small cell lung cancer, and ovarian cancer), lymphomas, and germ cell tumors. Cisplatin is particularly effective against testicular cancer; the cure rate was improved from 10% to 85%.

Cisplatin saved countless lives. Its available in tablet form as well as Injection. There are many brands available in market.