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Saturday, December 29, 2012

Cancer Risk Factor and causes

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There is no single cause for cancer. Scientists think that it is the interaction of plenty of factors together that produces cancer. The factors involved may be genetic, environmental or constitutional characteristics of the individual. Diagnosis, treatment & prognosis for childhood cancers are different than for adult cancers. The main differences are the survival rate & the reason for the cancer. The survival rate for childhood cancer is about 75 percent, while in adult cancers the survival rate is 60 percent. This difference is thought to be because childhood cancer is more responsive to therapy, & a kid can tolerate more aggressive therapy.

Childhood cancers often occur or start in the stem cells, which are simple cells able to producing other types of specialized cells that the body needs. A sporadic (occurs by chance) cell change or mutation is usually what causes childhood cancer. In adults, the type of cell that becomes cancerous is usually an "epithelial" cell, which is of the cells that line the body cavity - including the surfaces of organs, glands or body structures - & cover the body surface. Cancer in adults usually occurs from environmental exposures to these cells over time. Adult cancers are sometimes known as "acquired" for this reason.

Some cancers, in adults, have been associated with sure risk factors. A risk factor is anything that may increase a person's chance of developing a disease. A risk factor does not necessarily cause the disease, but it may make the body less resistant to it. Individuals who have an increased risk of developing cancer can help to protect themselves by scheduling regular screenings and check-ups with their physician and by avoiding sure risk factors. Cancer treatment has been proven to be more effective when the cancer is detected early.

 

Family history, inheritance and genetics may play an important role in some adult and childhood cancers. It is feasible for cancer of varying forms to be present over one time in a relatives. Some gene alterations are inherited. However, this does not necessarily mean that the person will create cancer. It indicates that the chance of developing cancer increases. It is unknown in these circumstances if the disease is caused by a genetic mutation, other factors or basically coincidence.



Lifestyle and environmental factors such as smoking, high-fat diet, exposure to ultraviolet (UV radiation from the sun) or exposure to chemicals (cancer-causing substances) in the workplace over long periods of time may be risk factors for some adult cancers. Most babies with cancer, however, are young to have been exposed to these lifestyle factors for any extended time.

Exposure to sure viruses, such as the human papillomavirus and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV; the virus that causes acquired immune deficiency, or AIDS), have been linked to an increased risk of developing sure types of cancers. Possibly, the virus alters a cell in some way. That cell then reproduces an altered cell and, finally, these alterations become a cancer cell that reproduces more cancer cells. Cancer is not contagious as well as a person cannot contract cancer from another who has the disease.

Environmental exposures such as pesticides, fertilizers and power lines have been researched for a direct link to childhood cancers. There has been proof of cancer occurring among non related babies in sure neighborhoods and/or cities. Whether prenatal or kid exposure to these agents causes cancer, or whether it is a coincidence, is unknown.

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